Valentine Greatrakes (14 February 1628 - 28 November 1683). For many centuries, healing by stroking a patient was considered to be an effective treatment because it made use of the supposed phenomenon of animal magnetism. Here depicted Valentine Greatrakes, an Irish faith healer, curing a boy with this method.
Medieval glasses: Dropped in the toilet As letter types decreased in size, glasses came into use, likely in the 13th century. These were usually clip-on models without support behind the ears. This is a pair of 14th-century glasses. These glasses were excavated from a medieval toilet in the Augustinian monastic house in Freiburg, Germany.
1350-1400 Dutch: (Wienhausen Kloster) Straight rivet spectacle with dark horn frames. "These resembled those in the Treviso fresco of 1352. They were of 2mm thick boxwood with a slit in each grooved rim to permit the insertion of the lens. The slit was then tied up with string. Straight handle-like shafts led up to the rivet. These were literally two magnifying glasses fixed together."