European (German) riveted mail hauberk, detail view, 15th century, hip-length, slotted collar and long sleeves. Waist of riveted and soldered flat rings. The mail on chest and back is stronger than at the shoulders and upper arms. Lower body and sleeves are not riveted but soldered rings with round cross-section, collar of fine riveted alternating brass and iron rings. Length about 75 cm. Exceptional quality fully crafted chain mail. Provenance: Roselius House Museum, Bremen. F6.
Europen riveted mail coif, from a mass grave, battle of Visby, fought in July 1361 on the Swedish Baltic island of Gotland, between invading Danish troops and the local Gutnish forces. The Danish won a decisive victory. Due to the heat, the dead had to be disposed of quickly, and many were buried in their armour. The archaeological excavation of one of the mass graves, in the 1930s, revealed over 1000 skeletons. Fornsalen Museum.
10th-13th Century military costume: chain-mail was worn as protection under the surcote. It was wade of interlocked metal rings, plates of metal, hardened leather, whalebone, or horn.
Iron Age. Chain mail of thousands of small iron rings marks a first peak in the European iron technology, as developed in the Celtic armories around 300 BC. Chain mail was taken used by the Romans throughout the Iron Age and was a popular armour among leading warriors. The best-preserved Iron Age chain mail, seen here comes from Funen in Denmark and is dated to ca. 200 AD.
Kungslena hauberk, probably from the late 12th or early 13th century.
European ( Vimose, Denmark) alternating solid and round riveted mail haubek, the oldest completely preserved mail from Northern Europe, 20,000+ small iron links that interlock like a knitted sweater, approx 10 kg, the shape is reminiscent of Roman mail from the 3th c AD, which was mainly used by the Germanic mercenaries (auxiliarerne), an integral part of the Roman army. In Scandinavia it was probably only leaders who wore the expensive and prestigious mail armor. National Museum of Denmark…
European (Russian) riveted mail hauberk, 16th c, made of flat washer type links "baidana". Discovered in the wall of a Catholic monastery early 20th c in Orsha (Belarus). On each of the several thousand links the name "Ivan Vyrodkov" is inscribed, a Russian military engineer and inventor, he led siege works during the capture of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible in 1552. B15.
mail coif found in the tower of Tofta church,Gotland. Dated to around 1200. Flat rings.
European (German) riveted mail hauburk, detail view of a sleeve, 15th century, although mail making was a highly specialized craft, very few mail garments were signed by their makers. This one has two brass links inscribed with the name BECHLER, (probably the family name of maker, form of name suggesting South German origin). L. overall 36 inches (99.5 cm); W. approx. 33 inches (83.9 cm). Metropolitan Museum. C7.