Members of "The Neandertal Genome Project" at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology pose with a Neanderthal skeleton. The initial draft of the genome was published in "Science" on May 7, 2010 and "results indicate that Neandertals are slightly more closely related to modern humans outside Africa. The team also identified several genomic regions that appear to have played an important role during human evolution."
Head of a model of a neanderthal man. This image is part of the feature Neanderthal Genome - First Draft. Swedish geneticist, Svante Paabo, is a pioneer of extracting DNA from ancient animals, plants and humans. In 2006, he and his team from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, ammounced that they would sequence the entire Neanderthal genome.
The Vienna Coronation Gospels represent one of the most beautiful manuscripts of the Middle Ages and a major work of court art at the time of Charlemagne. The book consists of 236 purple-dyed vellum leaves with text written in gold and silver ink. Each of the four Gospels begins with a painted portrait of the respective Evangelist. Ca. 800-1200 AD
Research Article: "A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome," Science 7 May 2010: Vol. 328 no. 5979 pp. 710-722. DOI: 10.1126/science.1188021. Not written in simple language; for a summary of salient points, see http://pinterest.com/pin/175218241723251258/ . Shown: "Fig. 3 Divergence of Neandertal and human genomes. Distributions of divergence from the human genome reference sequence among segments of 100 kb are shown for three Neandertals and the five present-day humans."
New and more complete genome sequences from Neanderthals and Denisovans show that they both not only interbred with modern humans, but with another, previously unknown archaic human species. http://www.archaeology.org/news/1536-131119-neanderthal-denisovans-genome
"First draft of Neanderthal genome revealed. 63 percent of genetic code deciphered; could show why humans won out." This is a very good summary of what the Neanderthal genome reveals, what it doesn't, what they hope for still. Pictured: "A reconstructed Neanderthal skeleton, right, and a modern human version of a skeleton are on display at the Museum of Natural History in New York."