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India History - The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived dynasties, Delhi based kingdoms or sultanates, mostly of Turkic and Pashtun (Afghan) origin in medieval India. The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty. The five dynasties were the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90); the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320); the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414); the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51); and the Afghan Lodi dynasty (1451–1526).

Shams-ud-din Iltutmish (Hindi: अलतामश/AlTaMash/Iltutmish)(Persian شمس الدین التتمش) (r. 1211–1236) was the third ruler of the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi of Turkic origin.[1] He was a slave of Qutb-ud-din Aibak and later became his son-in-law and close lieutenant. He was the Governor of Badaun when he deposed Qutub-ud-din's successor Aram Shah and acceeded to the throne of the Delhi Sultanate in 1211. He shifted Capital from Lahore to Delhi, remained the ruler until his death on May 1, 1236. I

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India History -The Mongol Empire launched several invasions into the Indian subcontinent from 1221 to 1327. Some of those later raids were made by the unruly Qaraunas of Mongol origin. The Mongols made Kashmir their vassal state. The Mongol Empire also occupied most of modern Pakistan and Punjab for decades. However, the campaigns against the Delhi Sultanate proved unsuccessful, in spite of constant Mongol incursions.

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Niloufer Farhat Begum Sahiba (b January 4, 1916) was one of the last princesses of the Ottoman Empire. She was married to the second son of the last Nizam of Hyderabad in India Moazzam Jah. She was judged one of the 10 most beautiful women in the world. She died in Paris on June 12, 1989.

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