Turkey - Hagia Sophia, Istanbul. Facts about Turkey: Area: 779,452 sq km. Straddles two continents; 3% in Europe (Thrace), 97% in Asia (Anatolia). Also controls the Bosphorus Strait and the Dardanelles, vital sea links between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. Its strategic position has made the area of prime importance throughout history. Population: 75,705,147. Capital: Ankara. Official language: Turkish. 45 languages.